Davy Jordan, 49, of Cappagh Road in Dungannon, also allegedly attempted to develop a relationship with a government “hostile to the UK”.
His co-accused, Palestine-born doctor Issam Bassalat, 62, of Telford Road in Edinburgh, was arrested at Heathrow Airport on Saturday.
He is charged with a preparatory act of terrorism.
This charge alleges that Bassalat “attended and addressed a meeting of the Irish Republican Army” in Omagh on 19 July.
Mr Jordan is accused of attending this meeting and another in Sixmilecross on 9 February.
He is further suspected of belonging to a proscribed organisation and two counts of preparatory acts of terrorism.#
it is alleged he addressed a meeting that he was the ‘chairman’ of the New IRA.
Both men appeared in court remotely from Musgrave Police Station.
A detective chief inspector said both video and audio recordings made up part of the prosecution case.
Six other men – two from Derry – and two women are also facing charges in connection with the wider investigation into the New IRA labelled Operation Arbacia.
The PSNI, MI5, Police Scotland, An Garda Siochana and Metropolitan Police have all been involved.
Dr Bassalat’s solicitor, Gavin Booth, said his client was “pestered” to attend meetings in Scotland and Northern Ireland by an MI5 agent and they will be putting forward an entrapment case “at the earliest opportunity”.
Mr Jordan’s lawyer, Peter Corrigan, said the same agent organised an alleged meeting in Edinburgh between the two suspects.
“There’s absolutely no mention during that meeting of recruitment for the IRA, procurement of weapons for the IRA, or assisting the IRA,” he told the hearing.
“Predominantly the conversation was about Covid and other matters.”
The detective chief inspector said the meeting in Edinburgh was one of a number, “culminating in the relationship with foreign governments being progressed”.
Both men were remanded in custody until Friday, September 18 with neither applying for bail .